Clojure is a dynamic programming language designed to be general-purpose, combining the approachability and interactive development of a scripting language with an efficient and robust infrastructure for multithreaded programming. Clojure compiles directly to JVM bytecode. Clojure is a dialect of Lisp, and shares with Lisp the code-as-data philosophy and a powerful macro system. Clojure is predominantly a functional programming language,and features a rich set of immutable, persistent data structures.
CAL is a lazy functional language influenced by Haskell. It has an expressionbased syntax akin to other formula languages (such as those found in Excel and Crystal Reports). It also features a powerful and flexible type system which allows the compiler to perform precise compile-time checking of function calls. In addition, it has a simple syntax for accessing Java objects, methods, and fields from within CAL.
Aardappel is a new language, which computes by concurrently reducing trees (using a form of tree-rewriting) which sit together in tree-spaces (bags) and communicate amongst eachother (exchanging parts of themselves, in Linda-like fashion), and in general having a jolly good time alltogether. The language is 100% graphical. Oh yes, the language is linear as well.
PLAN is a resource-bounded functional programming language that uses a form of remote procedure call to realize active networking. PLAN is designed to be a public, authentication-free layer in the Active Network hierarchy. For this reason, we have limited the expressive power of PLAN in order to guarantee that all programs will terminate, thus reasonably permitting a router to run any PLAN program. However, PLAN can also be used as a “glue” layer which allows access to higher-level services.